After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies.In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator.Octavian found consul Mark Antony, Caesar's former colleague, in an uneasy truce with the dictator's assassins.
Philippus claimed descent from Alexander the Great, and was elected consul in 56 BC.
However, though some of his contemporaries did, Historians usually refer to the new Caesar as Octavian during the time between his adoption and his assumption of the name Augustus in 27 BC in order to avoid confusing the dead dictator with his heir.
A later senatorial investigation into the disappearance of the public funds took no action against Octavian, since he subsequently used that money to raise troops against the Senate's arch enemy Mark Antony.
He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.
He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law) Tiberius.